**B. E. MECANICAL ENGINEERING **

Outcome Based Education (OBE) and Choice Based Credit System (CBCS) **2018 scheme**

**SEMESTER – III**

**TRANSFORM CALCULUS, FOURIER SERIES AND NUMERICAL**

Module-1

Laplace Transforms: Definition and Laplace transform of elementary functions. Laplace transforms of Periodic functions and unit-step function – problems. Inverse Laplace Transforms: Inverse Laplace transform – problems, Convolution theorem to find the inverse Laplace transform (without proof) and problems, solution of linear differential equations using Laplace transform.

Module-2

Fourier Series: Periodic functions, Dirichlet’s condition. Fourier series of periodic functions period 2 and arbitrary period. Half range Fourier series. Practical harmonic analysis, examples from engineering field.

Module-3

Fourier Transforms: Infinite Fourier transforms, Fourier sine and cosine transforms. Inverse Fourier

transforms. Simple problems. Difference Equations and Z-Transforms: Difference equations, basic definition, z-transform-definition,Standard z-transforms, Damping and shifting rules, initial value and final value theorems (without proof) and problems, Inverse z-transform. Simple problems.

Module-4

Numerical Solutions of Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE’s): Numerical solution of ODE’s of first order and first degree- Taylor’s series method, Modified Euler’s method. Range – Kutta method of fourth order, Milne’s and Adam-Bashforth predictor and corrector method (No derivations of formulae), Problems.

Module-5

Numerical Solution of Second Order ODE’s: Runge -Kutta method and Milne’s predictor and corrector

method.(No derivations of formulae). Calculus of Variations: Variation of function and functional, variational problems, Euler’s equation, Geodesics, hanging chain, problems.

## MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

## Course Code 18ME32

Module-1

Stresses and Strains: Introduction, Properties of materials, Stress, Strain and Hooke’s law, Stress strain diagram

for brittle and ductile materials, True stress and strain, Calculation of stresses in straight, Stepped and tapered

sections, Composite sections, Stresses due to temperature change, Shear stress and strain, Lateral strain and

Poisson’s ratio, Elastic constants and relations between them.

Module-2

Analysis of Stress and Strain: Introduction to three dimensional state of stress, Stresses on inclined planes,

Principal stresses and maximum shear stress, Principal angles, Shear stresses on principal planes, Maximum

shear tress, Mohr circle for plane stress conditions.

Cylinders: Thin cylinder: Hoop’s stress, maximum shear stress, circumferential and longitudinal strains, Thick

cylinders: Lames equations.

Module-3

Shear Force and Bending Moment: Type of beams, Loads and reactions, Relationship between loads, shear

forces and bending moments, Shear force and bending moments of cantilever beams, Pin support and roller

supported beams subjected to concentrated loads, uniformly distributed constant / varying loads.

Stress in Beams: Bending and shear stress distribution in rectangular, I and T section beams.

Module-4

Theories of Failure: Maximum Principal stress theory, Maximum shear stress theory.

Torsion: Circular solid and hallow shafts, Torsional moment of resistance, Power transmission of straight and

stepped shafts, Twist in shaft sections, Thin tubular sections, Thin walled sections.

Module-5

Columns: Buckling and stability, Critical load, Columns with pinned ends, Columns with other support

conditions, Effective length of columns, Secant formula for columns.

Strain Energy: Strain energy due to axial, shear, bending, torsion and impact load. Castigliano’s theorem I and

II and their applications.

## BASIC THERMODYNAMICS

## Course Code 18ME33

Module-1

Fundamental Concepts & Definitions: Thermodynamic definition and scope, Microscopic and Macroscopic

approaches. Some practical applications of engineering thermodynamic Systems, Characteristics of system

boundary and control surface, examples. Thermodynamic properties; definition and units, intensive, extensive

properties, specific properties, pressure, specific volume, Thermodynamic state, state point, state diagram, path

and process, quasi-static process, cyclic and non-cyclic; processes;Thermodynamic equilibrium; definition, mechanical equilibrium; diathermic wall, thermal equilibrium,chemical equilibrium, Zeroth law of thermodynamics, Temperature; concepts, scales, international fixed points and measurement of temperature. Constant volume gas thermometer, constant pressure gas thermometer, mercury in glass thermometer.

Module-2

Work and Heat: Mechanics, definition of work and its limitations. Thermodynamic definition of work; examples, sign convention. Displacement work; as a part of a system boundary, as a whole of a system boundary, expressions for displacement work in various processes through p-v diagrams. Shaft work; Electrical work. Other types of work. Heat; definition, units and sign convention. Problems.First Law of Thermodynamics: Joules experiments, equivalence of heat and work. Statement of the First law of thermodynamics, extension of the First law to non – cyclic processes, energy, energy as a property, modes of energy, Extension of the First law to control volume; steady flow energy equation(SFEE), important applications.

Module-3

Second Law of Thermodynamics: Limitations of first law of thermodynamics, Thermal reservoir, heat engine and heat pump: Schematic representation, efficiency and COP. Reversed heat engine, schematic representation, importance and superiority of a reversible heat engine and irreversible processes, internal and external reversibility. Kelvin – Planck statement of the Second law of Thermodynamics; PMM I and PMM II, Clausius statement of Second law of Thermodynamics, Equivalence of the two statements; Carnot cycle, Carnot principles. Problems

Entropy: Clausius inequality, Statement- proof, Entropy- definition, a property, change of entropy, entropy as

a quantitative test for irreversibility, principle of increase in entropy, entropy as a coordinate.

Module-4

Availability, Irreversibility and General Thermodynamic relations. Introduction, Availability (Exergy),

Unavailable energy, Relation between increase in unavailable energy and increase in entropy. Maximum work,

maximum useful work for a system and control volume, irreversibility.

Pure Substances: P-T and P-V diagrams, triple point and critical points. Sub-cooled liquid, saturated liquid,

mixture of saturated liquid and vapor, saturated vapor and superheated vapor states of pure substance with

water as example. Enthalpy of change of phase (Latent heat). Dryness fraction (quality), T-S and H-S

diagrams, representation of various processes on these diagrams. Steam tables and its use. Throttling

calorimeter, separating and throttling calorimeter.

Module-5

Ideal gases: Ideal gas mixtures, Daltons law of partial pressures, Amagat’s law of additive volumes,

evaluation of properties of perfect and ideal gases, Air- Water mixtures and related properties.

Real gases – Introduction, Van-der Waal’s Equation of state, Van-der Waal’s constants in terms of critical

properties, Beattie-Bridgeman equation, Law of corresponding states, compressibility factor; compressibility

chart. Difference between Ideal and real gases

## MATERIAL SCIENCE

## Course Code 18ME34

Module-1

Introduction to Crystal Structure: Coordination number, atomic packing factor, Simple Cubic, BCC,FCC

and HCP Structures, Crystal imperfections–point, line, surface and volume imperfections. Atomic Diffusion:

Phenomen on, Fick’s laws of diffusion (First and Second Law);Factors affecting diffusion. Mechanical Behaviour: Stress-strain diagrams showing ductile and brittle behaviour of materials, Engineering stress and true strains, Linear and non- linear elastic behaviour and properties, Mechanical properties in plastic range: Stiffness, Yield strength, Offset Yield strength, Ductility, Ultimate Tensile strength, Toughness.Plastic deformation of single crystal by slip and twinning, Mechanisms of strengthening in metals.

Module-2

Failure of Materials Fracture: Type I, Type II and Type III,

Fatigue: Types of fatigue loading with examples, Mechanism of fatigue, fatigue properties, S-N diagram,

fatigue testing.

Creep: Description of the phenomenon with examples, three stages of creep, creep properties, Stress

relaxation. Concept of fracture toughness, numerical on diffusion, strain and stress relaxation. Alloys, Steels,

Solidification:Conceptofformationofalloys:Typesofalloys,solidsolutions,factorsaffectingsolidsolubility(HumeRotheryrules),Binary phasediagrams:Eutectic,andEutectoidsystems,Leverrule,Intermediatephases,(The same type of

process will study in Iron Carbon Phase Diagrams) Gibbs phase rule, Effect of non-equilibrium cooling,

Coring and Homo genization Iron-Carbon (Cementite) diagram: description of phases, Effect of common alloying elements in steel, Common alloy steels, Stainless steel, Tool steel, Specifications of steels.

Solidification: Mechanism of solidification, Homogenous and Heterogeneous nucleation, Crystal growth,

cast metal structures, Solidification of Steels and Cast irons. Numerical on Lever rule.

Module-3

Heat Treatment, Ferrous and Non-Ferrous Alloys: Heat treating of metals: Time-TemperatureTransformation (TTT) curves, Continuous Cooling Transformation (CCT) curves, Annealing: Recovery, Recrystallization and Grain growth, Types of annealing, Normalizing, Hardening, Tempering, Mar tempering, Austempering, Concept of harden ability, Factors affecting harden ability.Surface hardening methods: carburizing, cyaniding, nit riding, flame hardening and induction hardening,Age hardening of aluminium-copper alloys and PH steels. Ferrous materials: Properties, Compositions and uses of Grey cast iron and steel.

Module-4

Composite Materials : Composite materials – Definition, classification, types of matrix materials & reinforcements, Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs), Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) and Polymer Matrix Composites (PMCs), Particulate-reinforced and fiber- reinforced composites, Fundamentals of production of composites, characterization of composites, constitutive relations of composites, determination of composite properties from component properties, hybrid composites. Applications of composite materials. Numerical on determining properties of composites.

Module-5

Other Materials, Material Selection Ceramics: Structure type sand properties and applications of ceramics. Mechanical/ Electrical behaviour and processing of Ceramics.

Plastics: Various types of polymers/plastics and their applications. Mechanical behaviour and processing of

plastics, Failure of plastics.

Other materials: Brief description of other materials such as optical and thermal materials.

Smart materials–fiber optic materials,piezo-electrics,shapememoryalloys–Nitinol,superelasticity.

Biological applications of smart materials-materials usedasim plants in human Body, selection of materials,

performance of materials in service. Residual life assessment–use of non-destructive testing, economics,

environment and Sustainability.

## METAL CUTTING AND FORMING

Course Code 18ME35A/45A

Module-1

Introduction to Metal cutting: Orthogonal and oblique cutting. Classification of cutting tools: single, and

multipoint; tool signature for single point cutting tool. Mechanics of orthogonal cutting; chip formation, shear

angle and its significance, Merchant circle diagram. Numerical problems.

Cutting tool materials and applications.

Introduction to basic metal cutting machine tools: Lathe- Parts of lathe machine, accessories of lathe

machine, and various operations carried out on lathe. Kinematics of lathe. Turret and Capstan lathe.

Module-2

Milling: Various Milling operations, classification of milling machines, Vertical & Horizontal milling, up

milling & down milling. Indexing: need of indexing, simple, compound & differential indexing.

Drilling: Difference between drilling, boring & reaming, types of drilling machines. Boring operations &

boring machines.

Shaping, Planing and Slotting machines-machining operations and operating parameters.

Grinding: Grinding operation, classification of grinding processes: cylindrical, surface ¢erless grinding.

Module-3

Introduction to tool wear, tool wear mechanisms, tool life equations, effect of process parameters on tool life,

machinability. Cutting fluid-types and applications, surface finish, effect of machining parameters on surface

finish. Economics of machining process, choice of cutting speed and feed, tool life for minimum cost and

production time. Numerical problems.

Module-4

MECHANICAL WORKING OF METALS

Introduction to metal forming processes & classification of metal forming processes. Hot working & cold working

of metals. Forging: Smith forging, drop forging & press forging. Forging Equipment, Defects in forging.

Rolling: Rolling process, Angle of bite, Types of rolling mills, Variables of rolling process, Rolling defects.

Drawing & Extrusion: Drawing of wires, rods & pipes, Variables of drawing process. Difference between

drawing & extrusion. Various types of extrusion processes.

Module-5

Sheet Metal Operations: Blanking, piercing, punching, drawing, draw ratio, drawing force, variables in

drawing, Trimming, and Shearing.

Bending –– types of bending dies, Bending force calculation,

Embossing and coining.

Types of dies: Progressive, compound and combination dies.

## METAL CASTING AND WELDING

## Course Code 18ME35B/45B

Module-1

Introduction & basic materials used in foundry:

Introduction: Definition, Classification of manufacturing processes. Metals cast in the foundry-classification,

factors that determine the selection of a casting alloy.

Introduction to casting process & steps involved:

Patterns: Definition, classification, materials used for pattern, various pattern allowances and their

importance.

Sand moulding: Types of base sand, requirement of base sand. Binder, Additives definition, need and types;

preparation of sand moulds. Melding machines- Jolt type, squeeze type and Sand slinger.

Study of important moulding process: Green sand, core sand, dry sand, sweep mould, CO2mould, shell

mould, investment mould, plaster mould, cement bonded mould.

Cores: Definition, need, types. Method of making cores,

Concept of gating (top, bottom, parting line, horn gate) and risers (open, blind) Functions and types.

Module-2

MELTING & METAL MOLD CASTING METHODS

Melting furnaces: Classification of furnaces, Gas fired pit furnace, Resistance furnace, Coreless induction

furnace, electric arc furnace, constructional features & working principle of cupola furnace.

Casting using metal moulds: Gravity die casting, pressure die casting, centrifugal casting, squeeze casting,

slush casting, thixocasting, and continuous casting processes.

Module-3

SOLIDIFICATION &NON-FERROUS FOUNDRY PRACTICE

Solidification: Definition, nucleation, solidification variables. Directional solidification-need and methods.

Degasification in liquid metals-sources of gas, degasification methods. Fettling and cleaning of castings: Basic steps involved. Sand Casting defects- causes, features and remedies. Advantages & limitations of casting process Nonferrous foundry practice: Aluminium castings – advantages, limitations, melting of Aluminium using liftout type crucible furnace. Hardeners used, drossing, gas absorption, fluxing and flushing, grain refining,

pouring temperature. Stir casting set up, procedure, uses, advantages and limitations.

Module-4

Welding process: Definition, Principles, classification, application, advantages & limitations of welding. Arc

welding: Principle, Metal arc welding (MAW), Flux Shielded Metal Arc Welding (FSMAW), Inert Gas

Welding (TIG & MIG) Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) and Atomic Hydrogen Welding (AHW).

Special type of welding: Resistance welding principles, Seam welding, Butt welding, Spot welding and

Projection welding. Friction welding, Explosive welding, Thermit welding, Laser welding and Electron beam

welding.

Module-5

METALLURGICAL ASPECTS IN WELDING, SOLDERING, AND BRAZING

Structure of welds, Formation of different zones during welding, Heat Affected Zone (HAZ), Parameters

affecting HAZ. Effect of carbon content on structure and properties of steel, Shrinkage in welds& Residual

stresses. Concept of electrodes, filler rod and fluxes. Welding defects- detection, causes & remedy.

Soldering, brazing, gas welding: Soldering, Brazing, Gas Welding: Principle, oxy-Acetylene welding, oxyhydrogen welding, air-acetylene welding, Gas cutting, powder cutting.

Inspection methods: Methods used for inspection of casting and welding. Visual, magnetic particle,

fluorescent particle, ultrasonic. Radiography, eddy current, holography methods of inspection.

## COMPUTER AIDED MACHINE DRAWING

## Course Code 18ME36A/46A

Part A

Introduction:

Review of graphic interface of the software. Review of basic sketching commands and navigational

commands. Starting a new drawing sheet. Sheet sizes. Naming a drawing, Drawing units, grid and snap.

Conversion of pictorial views into orthographic projections of simple machine parts (with and without section).

Hidden line conventions. Precedence of lines.

Sections of Solids: Sections of Pyramids, Prisms, Cubes, Tetrahedrons, Cones and Cylinders resting only on

their bases (No problems on axis inclinations, spheres and hollow solids). True shape of sections.

Conversion of pictorial views into orthographic projections of simple machine parts. Hidden line conventions.

Precedence of lines.

Conversion of pictorial views into orthographic projections of simple machine parts (with section planes

indicated on the part).

Thread Forms: Thread terminology, sectional views of threads. ISO Metric (Internal & External), BSW

(Internal & External) square and Acme. Sellers thread, American Standard thread.

Fasteners: Hexagonal headed bolt and nut with washer (assembly), square headed bolt and nut with washer

(assembly) simple assembly using stud bolts with nut and lock nut. Flanged nut, slotted nut, taper and split pin

for locking, counter sunk head screw, grub screw, Allen screw.

Part B

Keys: Parallel key, Taper key, Feather key, Gib-head key and Woodruff key.

Joints: Cotter joint (socket and spigot), knuckle joint (pin joint) for two rods.

Couplings: Split Muff coupling, Protected type flanged coupling, pin (bush) type flexible coupling, and

universal coupling (Hooks’ Joint)

Part C

Limits, Fits and Tolerances: Introduction, Fundamental tolerances, Deviations, Methods of placing limit

dimensions, machining symbols, types of fits with symbols and applications, geometrical tolerances on

drawings. Standards followed in industry.

Assembly Drawings: (Part drawings shall be given)

1. Plummer block (Pedestal Bearing)

2. Lever Safety Valve

3. I.C. Engine connecting rod

4. Screw jack (Bottle type)

5. Tailstock of lathe

6. Machine vice

7. Tool head of shaper

## MECHANICAL MEASUREMENTS AND METROLOGY

## Course Code 18ME36B/46B

Module-1

Introduction to Metrology: Definition, objectives of metrology, Material Standards, Wavelength Standards,

Classification of standards, Line and End standards, Calibration of End bars. Numerical examples.

Liner measurement and angular measurements: Slip gauges-Indian standards on slip gauges, Adjustable slip

gauges, Wringing of slip gauges, Problems on building of slip gauges (M87, M112), Measurement of angle-sine

bar, Sine centre, Angle gauges, Optical instruments for angular measurements. Autocollimator-Applications for

measuring straightness and squareness.

Module-2

System of Limits, Fits, Tolerance and Gauging: Definitions, Tolerance, Tolerance analysis (addition &

subtraction of tolerances) Inter changeability & Selective assembly. Class &grade of tolerance, Fits, Types of

fits, Numerical on limits, fit and tolerance. Hole base system & shaft base system. Taylor’s principle, Types of

limit gauges, Numerical on limit gauge design.

Comparators: Functional requirements, Classification, Mechanical- Johnson Mikrokator, Sigma comparators,

Dial indicator, Electrical comparators, LVDT, Pneumatic comparators- Principle of back pressure, Solex

comparators, Optical comparators- Zeiss ultraoptimeter.

Module-3

Measurement of screw thread and gear: Terminology of screw threads, Measurement of major diameter,

Minor diameter, Pitch, Angle and Effective diameter of screw threads by 2- wire and 3-wire methods, Best size

wire. Screw thread gauges, Toolmaker’s microscope.

Gear tooth Measurements: Tooth thickness measurement using constant chord method, Addendum,

Comparator method and Base tangent method, Measurement of pitch, Concentricity, Run out and In volute

profile. Gear roll tester for composite error.

Module-4

Measurement system and basic concepts of measurement methods: Definition, Significance of

measurement, Generalized measurement system, Static characteristics- Accuracy, Precision, Calibration,

Threshold, Sensitivity, Hysteresis, Repeatability, Linearity, Loading effect, Dynamic characteristics- System

response, Time delay. Errors in measurement, Classification of errors.

Transducers: Transfer efficiency, Primary and Secondary transducers, Electrical transducers, Mechanical,

Electronic transducers, Relative comparison of each type of transducers.

Intermediate Modifying and Terminating Devices: Mechanical systems, Inherent problems, Electrical

intermediate modifying devices, Input circuitry, Ballast circuit, Electronic amplifiers. Terminating devices,

Cathode ray oscilloscope, Oscillographs.

Module-5

Applied mechanical measurement: Measurement of force, Torque, Pressure, Types of Dynamometers,

Absorption dynamometer, Prony brake and Rope brake dynamometer, and Power Measuring Instruments. Use

of elastic members, Bridgeman gauge, McLeod gauge, Pirani gauge.

Measurement of strain and temperature: Theory of strain gauges, Types, Electrical resistance strain gauge,

Preparation and mounting of Strain gauges, Gauge factor, Methods of strain measurement, temperature

compensation, Resistance thermometers, Thermocouple, Law of thermocouple, Pyrometer, Optical pyrometer.