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**B. E. AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING **

Outcome Based Education (OBE) and Choice Based Credit System (CBCS) **2018 scheme**

**SEMESTER – III**

**TRANSFORM CALCULUS, FOURIER SERIES AND NUMERICAL TECHNIQUES**

**(Common to all Programmes)**

**Course Code 18MAT31**

Module-1

Laplace Transforms: Definition and Laplace transform of elementary functions. Laplace transforms of Periodic functions and unit-step function – problems. Inverse Laplace Transforms: Inverse Laplace transform – problems, Convolution theorem to find the inverse Laplace transform (without proof) and problems, solution of linear differential equations using Laplace transform.

Module-2

Fourier Series: Periodic functions, Dirichlet’s condition. Fourier series of periodic functions period 2 and arbitrary period. Half range Fourier series. Practical harmonic analysis, examples from engineering field.

Module-3

Fourier Transforms: Infinite Fourier transforms, Fourier sine and cosine transforms. Inverse Fourier

transforms. Simple problems. Difference Equations and Z-Transforms: Difference equations, basic definition, z-transform-definition,Standard z-transforms, Damping and shifting rules, initial value and final value theorems (without proof) and problems, Inverse z-transform. Simple problems.

Module-4

Numerical Solutions of Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE’s): Numerical solution of ODE’s of first order and first degree- Taylor’s series method, Modified Euler’s method. Range – Kutta method of fourth order, Milne’s and Adam-Bashforth predictor and corrector method (No derivations of formulae), Problems.

Module-5

Numerical Solution of Second Order ODE’s: Runge -Kutta method and Milne’s predictor and corrector method.(No derivations of formulae). Calculus of Variations: Variation of function and functional, variational problems, Euler’s equation, Geodesics, hanging chain, problems.

**ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS**

**Course Code 18 AU32**

Module-1

Fundamentals of Thermodynamics:

Thermodynamic definition and scope, Microscopic and Macroscopic approaches. Thermodynamic properties;

definition and units, intensive, extensive properties, specific properties, pressure, specific volume, Thermodynamic state, state point, state diagram, path and process, quasi-static process, cyclic and non cyclic;processes;Thermodynamic equilibrium; definition, mechanical equilibrium; diathermic wall, thermal equilibrium, chemical equilibrium, Zeroth law of thermodynamics, Temperature; concepts, scales, international fixed points and measurement of temperature. Constant volume gas thermometer, constant pressure gas thermometer, mercury in glass thermometer.

Work and Heat: Thermodynamic definition of work; examples, sign convention, Shaft work, Electrical work, Other types of work. Heat; definition, units and sign convention.

Module-2

Laws of Thermodynamics :BJoules experiments, Statement of the First law of thermodynamics, steady state-steady flow energy equation,important applications, analysis of unsteady processes such as filling and evacuation of vessels with and without heat transfer. Keivin –Planck &Clasius statement of Second law of Thermodynamics, PMM II and PMM I. Clasius Theorem & thermodynamic equivalence of the two statements; reversible and irreversible processes; factors that make a

Module-3

Entropy: Entropy; definition, a property, principle of increase of entropy, entropy as a quantitative test for irreversibility, calculation of entropy using Tds relations, entropy as a coordinate. Available and unavailable energy.

Pure Substances: P-T and P-V diagrams, triple point and critical points. Sub-cooled liquid, saturated liquid, mixture of saturated liquid and vapour, saturated vapour and superheated vapour states of pure substance with water as example. Enthalpy of change of phase (Latent heat).Dryness fraction (quality), T-S and H-S diagrams, representation of various processes on these diagrams, steam tables and its use, Throttling calorimeter, separating and throttling calorimeter.

Module-4

Refrigeration:

Vapor absorption refrigeration system, steam jet refrigeration, vapor compression refrigeration system; description, analysis, refrigerating effect, capacity, power required, units of refrigeration, COP, Refrigerants and their desirable properties.

Psychrometry: Dry bulb temperature, wet bulb temperature, dew point temperature; specific and relative humidifies

Construction and use of psychrometric chart Analysis of various processes; heating, cooling, dehumidifying and humidifying. Adiabatic mixing of moist air. Summer and winter air conditioning. Numericals.

Module-5

Reciprocating Air Compressors, Gas Turbine and Jet Propulsion: Operation of a single stage reciprocating compressor, work input through P-V diagram, steady state and steady flow analysis, adiabatic, isothermal and mechanical efficiencies minimum work for compression, multistage compressor. Classification of Gas turbines, Analysis of open cycle gas turbine cycle. Advantages and disadvantages of closed cycle, numericals. Principle of Jet propulsion and Rocket propulsion.

## MATERIAL SCIENCE AND METALLURGY

**Course Code 18AU33**

Module-1

Crystal Structure:

BCC, FCC and HCP Structures, coordination number and atomic packing factors, crystal imperfections –point,

line and surface imperfections. Atomic Diffusion: Phenomenon, Flick’s laws of diffusion, factors affecting diffusion.

Mechanical Behaviour: Stress-strain diagram for ductile and brittle materials, True stress and true strain, linear and non-linear elastic behaviour and properties, mechanical properties in plastic range, yield strength, offset yield strength, ductility, ultimate tensile strength, and toughness. Plastic deformation of single crystal by slip and twinning.

Module-2

Fracture: Type I, Type II and Type III. Creep: Description of the creep phenomenon with examples, three stages of creep, creep properties, stress relaxation.

Fatigue: Types of fatigue loading with examples, Mechanism of fatigue, fatigue properties, fatigue testing and

S-N diagram.

Module-3

Solidification and Solid Solutions: Mechanism of solidification, Homogenous and Heterogeneous nucleation,

crystal growth, cast metal structures, solid solutions- types and rules governing the formation of solid solutions.

Phase Diagram: Basic terms, phase rule, lever rule, cooling curves, construction and interpretation of different phase diagrams ( eutectic, eutectoid, peritectic and peritectoid).

Module-4

Heat Treatment of Metals: TTT curves, continuous cooling curves, annealing and its types. Normalizing,

hardening, tempering, martempering, austempering, hardenability, surface hardening methods like carburizing,

cyaniding, nitriding, flarne hardening and induction hardening, age hardening of Aluminium-copper alloys. Ferrous Materials: Properties, Composition and uses of Grey cast iron, malleable iron, S.G iron and steel.

Module-5

Non Ferrous Metals: Copper alloys-brasses and bronzes, Aluminum alloys-Al-Cu, Al-Si, Al-Zn alloys, composition, properties, advantages and disadvantages and applications. Composite Materials: Definition, classification, types of matrix materials & reinforcements, fundamentals of production of FRP’ and MMC’s advantages and application of composites.

## MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

**Course Code 18AU34**

Module-1

Stress and Strain: Introduction, Hooke’s law, Calculation of stresses in straight, Stepped and tapered sections,

Composite sections, Stresses due to temperature change, Shear stress and strain, Lateral strain and Poisson’s

ratio, Generalized Hooke’s law, Bulk modulus, Relationship between elastic constants.

Module-2

Analysis of Stress and Strain: Plane stress, Stresses on inclined planes, Principal stresses and maximum shear

stress, Principal angles, Shear stresses on principal planes, Maximum shear tress, Mohr circle for plane stress

conditions. Cylinders: Thin cylinder: Hoop’s stress, maximum shear stress, circumferential and longitudinal strains, thick cylinders: Lames equations.

Module-3

Shear Forces and Bending Moments: Type of beams, Loads and reactions, Relationship between loads, shear

forces and bending moments, Shear force and bending moments of cantilever beams, Pin support and roller

supported beams subjected to concentrated loads and uniformly distributed constant / varying loads. Stresses in Beams: Pure bending, Curvature of a beam, Longitudinal strains in beams, Normal stresses in Beams with rectangular, circular, ‘I’ and ‘T’ cross sections, Flexure Formula, Bending Stresses, Deflection of beams (Curvature).

Module-4

Torsion: Circular solid and hallow shafts, Torsional moment of resistance, Power transmission of straight and

stepped shafts, Twist in shaft sections, Thin tubular sections, Thin walled sections. Columns: Buckling and stability, Critical load, Columns with pinned ends, Columns with other support conditions, Effective length of columns and Secant formula for columns.

Module-5

Strain Energy: Castigliano’s theorem I and II, Load deformation diagram, Strain energy due to normal stresses,

Shear stresses, Modulus of resilience, Strain energy due to bending and torsion.

Theories of Failure: Maximum Principal stress theory, Maximum shear stress theory.

## MECHANICAL MEASUREMENT AND METROLOGY

## Course Code 18AU35

Module-1

Measurements, Measurement Systems and Standards of Measurement: Definition, significance of

measurement, generalized measurement system, definition and concept of accuracy, precision, sensitivity,

Calibration, threshold, hysteresis, repeatability, linearity, loading effect, system response, time delay, errors in

measurement, classification of errors. Definition and objectives of metrology, Standard of lengthInternational prototype meter, Imperial standard yard, Wave length standard, Subdivision of standards, line and end standard, comparison, Transfer from line standard to end standard, calibration of end bars (Numerical)

Module-2

Comparators: Introduction to Comparator, Characteristics, Classification of Comparators, Sigma comparators, dial indicators, optical comparators, principles, ziess ultra optimeter, Electric and electronic comparators –principles, LVDT, pneumatic comparators, back pressure gauges, solex comparators. Angular Measurementsand Interferometer: Bevel protractor. Sine principle, use of sine bars, sine centre, angle gauges (numerical on building of angles), Clinometers. Principle of inter-ferometry, autocollimator, optical flats.

Module-3

Transducers, Intermediate Modifying and Display Devices: Transfer efficiency, primary and secondary

transducers, Mechanical, electrical transducers (resistive capacitive and piezoelectric transducers), electronic

transducers, advantages of each type of transducers. Mechanical systems, inherent problems, electrical intermediate modifying devices, input circuitry, mechanical signal transmission, . Mechanical, digital read out devices, ultra-violet recorders, servo-recorders cathode ray oscilloscope, Oscillographs, X-Y plotters

Module-4

Measurement of Force,Torque and strain : Principle, analytical balance, platform balance proving ring, torque measurement, types of dynamometers prony brake, Hydraulic dynamometer, Eddy current dynamometer. Strain gauge, preparation and mounting of strain gauges, gauge factor, Methods of strain measurement.

Module-5

System of Limits, Fits, Tolerance and Gauging: Definition of tolerance, Specification in assembly, Principle of interchangeability and selective assembly, limits of size, Indian standards, concept of limits of size and tolerances, definition of fits, hole basis system, shaft basis system, types of fits and their designation (IS 919-1963), geometric tolerance, position-tolerances. Pressure and Temperature Measurement: Principle, use of elastic members, bridge man gauge, Mcleod gauge, thermal conductivity gauge, (pirani gauge and thermocouple vacuum gauge) ionization gauge,Resistance thermometers, thermocouple, law of thermocouple, thermocouple circuits, thermocouple materials, pyrometers, optical pyrometer.

## MANUFACTURING PROCESS – I

## Course Code 18AU36

Module-1

Introduction: Concept of Manufacturing process, its importance. Classification of Manufacturing processes.

Introduction to Casting process & steps involved. Varieties of components produced by casting process. Advantages & Limitations of casting process.

Patterns: Definition, functions, Materials used for pattern, various pattern allowances and their importance.

Classification of patterns.

Binder: Definition, Types of binder used in moulding sand.

Additives: Need, Types of additives used. Types of base sand, requirement of base sand. Moulding sand mixture ingredients (base sand, binder & additives) for different sand mixtures. Method used for sand molding, such as Green sand, dry sand and skin dried moulds.

Cores: Definition, Need, Types. Method of making cores, Binders used, core sand moulding.

Gates & Risers. Principle and types. Fettling and cleaning of castings: Basic steps, Casting defects, Causes, features and remedies.

Module-2

Special Moulding Process & Furnaces:

Moulding Machines: Jolt type, Squeeze type, Jolt & Squeeze type and Sand slinger.

Process: Study of important moulding processes, No bake moulds, Flaskless moulds, Sweep mould, CO2

mould, Shell mould, Investment mould.

Metal moulds: Gravity die-casting, Pressure die casting, Centrifugal casting, Squeeze Casting, Slush casting,

and Thixocasting processes.

Furnaces: Constructional features & working principle of coke fired, oil fired and Gas fired pit furnace,Resistance f urnace, Electric Arc Furnace, Cupola furnace.

Module-3

Welding Process: Definition, Principles, Classification, Application, Advantages & limitations of welding.

Welding defects – Detection causes & remedy.

Arc Welding: Principle, Metal Arc welding (MAW), Flux Shielded Metal Arc Welding (FSMAW). Structure

of welds, Formation of different zones during welding. Heat affected zone (HAZ). Parameters affecting HAZ.

Effect of carbon content on structure and properties of steel. Shrinkage in welds & Residual stresses. Concept

of electrodes, Filler rod and fluxes.

Gas Welding: Principle, Oxy – Acetylene welding, Chemical Reaction in Gas welding, Flame characteristics.

Gas torch construction &working. Forward and backward welding.

Module-4

Resistance welding: Principles, Seam welding, Butt welding, Spot welding and projection welding.

Other welding processes: Working principle, advantages and disadvantages and applications of Inert Gas Welding (TIG & MIG) Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) and Atomic Hydrogen Welding processes. (AHW) Friction welding, Explosive welding, Thermit welding, Laser welding and Electron beam welding.

Module-5

Soldering, Brazing: Parameters involved & Mechanism. Different Types of Soldering & Brazing Methods.Inspection Methods: Methods used for Inspection of casting and welding. Visual, Magnetic particle, Fluorescent particle, Ultrasonic, Radiography, Eddy current, Holography methods of Inspection.

## METALLOGRAPHY AND MATERIAL TESTING LABORATORY

## Course Code 18AUL37

.

Experiments

PART- A

1. Preparation of specimen for Metallographic examination of different engineering materials.Identification of microstructures of plain carbon steel, tool steel, gray CI, SG iron, Brass, Bronze & composites.

2. Heat treatment: Annealing, normalizing, hardening and tempering of steel. Hardness studies of heat treated samples.

3. To study the wear characteristics of ferrous, non-ferrous and composite materials for different parameters.

4. Non-destructive test experiments like,

a. Ultrasonic flaw detection

b. Magnetic crack detection

c. Dye penetration testing. To study the defects of Cast and Welded specimens

5. Brinell, Rockwell and Vickers’s Hardness test.

2 PART- B

1. Tensile, Shear and Compression tests of metallic and non-metallic specimens using Universal Testing Machine

2. Torsion Test

3. Bending Test on metallic and nonmetallic specimens.

4. Izod and Charpy Tests on M.S, and CI specimen.

5. Fatigue Test.

## FOUNDRY AND FORGING LABORATORY

## Course Code 18AUL38

Experiments

1 PART- A

Testing of Moulding Sand and Core Sand:

Preparation of sand specimens and conduction of the following tests:

a. Compression, Shear and Tensile tests on Universal Sand Testing Machine.

b. Permeability test

c. Core hardness & Mould hardness tests. ( Demonstration only))

d. Sieve Analysis to find Grain Finest number of Base Sand

e. Clay content determination in Base Sand

2 PART- B

Foundry Practice:

a. Use of foundry tools and other equipment.

b. Preparation of moulds using two moulding boxes using patterns or without patterns. (Split pattern, Match plate)

c. Preparation of one casting (Aluminum or cast iron-Demonstration only)

3 PART- C

a. Calculation of length of the raw material required to prepare the model by forging.

b. Preparing minimum three forged models involving upsetting, drawingand bending operations.

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